Hello, friends now we will discuss computer hardware. Before discussing computer hardware we have to know the benefits of computer hardware. Hardware improves productivity, increase our revenue, reduce repair costs, and provide quality service. Good practice to do troubleshooting with knowledge makes us smarter, and we can easily identify computer hardware faults. Better job opportunities in the hardware and also technology sectors. Computer hardware is important as the blood of information technology. It helps to understand all concepts and language of computer works. Its parts are important to the operating system and to troubleshoot intelligence with precautions. For these reasons, computer hardware learning is important to us.
In this topic the main points we are discussing
Computer hardware is the mechanical devices that make up the computer. It consists of interconnected electronic devices that we can use to control the computer operation, input, and output. We have options to assemble a computer. We can assemble a computer system with the same brand components or we can assemble withdifferent brand’s peripherals.
Computer hardware devices
There are two types of hardware devices. they are (a) Input device (b) Output device.
Devices used to give input in a computer hardware system are known as input devices. Some input devices are keyboard, mouse, trackball, graphics tablet, game controllers, touch screen, webcam, microphone, etc.
A monitor is an output device used to display the output as result. There are five basic types of monitors.
(1) CRT(Cathode ray tube)– Vacuum tube containing an electron gun(a source of electrons) red, blue, green. Fluorescent screen with internal or external means to accelerate and deflect the electron beam.
(2) LCD(Liquide crystal display)– Thin flat panel used for electronically displaying information.
(3) LED(Light-emitting diode)- Instead of heaving a normal CFL backlight, it uses LED as a source of light behind the screen.
(4) TFT(Thin-film transistor)– Each pixel is controlled by one to four transistors. It uses chemical and electrical properties to create a visible image on a screen.
(5) AMOLED(Active-matrix organic light-emitting diode)– IT contains an LED which is comprised of an organic material that emits light when the current is passed through it. It used to display rich and vibrant colors.
Connectors in the monitors
(1) VGA(Video graphics array) – It is 15 pins only video.
(2) DVI(Digital video interface)– It is 24 pins video and audio
(3) HDMI(High definition multimedia interface)– It is 19 pins HD video and audio.
A keyboard is an input device used to input into a computer system using some key-strokes. There are five basic types of keyboards. Keyboard connectors are PS2 and USB.
(1) Mechanical keyboard
(2) Gaming keyboard
(3) Standard keyboard
(4) Wireless keyboard
(5) Multimedia keyboard
A mouse is an input device used to input into a computer system using a pointer arrow or other cursor. There are three basic types of mice are- (1) Mechanical or Trackball mouse (2) Optical mouse (3) Wireless mouse. Mouse connectors are PS2 and USB.
(1) Mechanical or Trackball mouse
(2) Optical mouse
(3) Wireless mouse
UPS(Uninterruptable power supply)
UPS is a device that provides battery backup when the electrical power fails or drops to an unacceptable voltage level. Small UPS systems provide power for few minutes as a computer backup, enough to power shutdown the computer in an orderly manner, while larger systems have enough battery for several hours.
A speaker is an output device used to give sound as output. In order to translate an electrical signal into an audible sound, speakers contain an electromagnet, a metal coil that creates a magnetic field when an electric current flows through it.
Webcams are typically small cameras that either attach to the user’s monitor or sit on a desk. Most webcams connect to the computer via USB Types of webcams (1) Integrated webcam (2) Webcam with microphone (3) Standalone webcam (4) Network cameras or CCTV.
(1) Integrated webcam
(2) Webcam with microphone
(3) Standalone webcam
(4) Network cameras or CCTV.
There are four types of scanner, these are (1) Specialized scanner (2) Handheld scanner (3) Standard scanner. (4) Application scanner.
(1) Specialized scanner
Those scanners which are used to scan some special documents like a business card and metro card.
(2) Handheld scanner
Those scanners are smaller and easy to handheld and use to scan a lot of things very quickly like a barcode scanner.
(3) Standard scanner
It has two types of scanners
(1) Flatbed scanner– In a flatbed scanner, the documents or pages are placed on the screen for scanning. This may be standalone or integrated into a printer.
(2) Sheetfed scanner– It is a smaller and portable scanner in comparison to a flatbed scanner. WE can scan a whole book using a sheetfed scanner.
(4) Application scanner
Those scanners which need a mobile phone to operate like cam scan and genius cam.
Connectors of scanners
(1) Serial port- It is 9 pins connectors.
(2) Parallel port- It is 25 pins connectors.
(3) USB port- It is 4 pins connector
(4) Lan port- It is 8 pins connectors
(5) Wireless port- Without connector.
A printer is an output device that converts the soft copy into hard copy. It converts digital copy into a physical copy.
There are two types of printers- (1) Impact printer (2) Non-Impact printer.
Those printers have physical contact between cartilage and paper.
Dot-Matrix printer – It is a part of Impact printer. It has an array of pins which helps to print the papers with tiny dots. Example- railway ticket printer. It speeds up to 100 to 600 Cps having 9 to 24 pins.
Line printer– They are used by offices where they need to print data on a large scale. Example- poster drum printer, it speeds up to 1200 to 6000 PM.
Character printer– It prints paper character-wise. Example- Typewriter.
Inkjet printer – It similar to the Dot-Matrix printer but it does not have any physical contact with external media. It gives a printout with the help of spray speed up to 250 CPS.
Laser printer – It uses a laser beam and heated toner to produce printout on a paper speed up to 6000 to 12000 pages per hour.
Page printer– Those printers which print whole paper at a time.
Thermal printer– It uses heat to transfer an impression into paper types of a thermal printer. It has two types of printers,
(a) Thermal wax transfer printer- Where a thermal print head melts ink and transfer with the help of ribbon onto paper. After cooling the wax is permanent.
(b) Direct thermal – Where a printer prints an image by burning dots onto a coated paper.
Virtual printer – It is a simulated device whose interface and API are similar to a printer driver, but the device is not connected with a physical printer. Examples- Microsoft XPS document writer, cute pdf writer.
Multi functional device – It is known as all one printer. It is a combination of various functionalities like printer, scanner, and photocopy.
Types of connectors in printers
(1) Serial/com port- It is a 9 pins connector. (2) Parallel port- It is 25 pins connector. (3) USB port- It is 4 pins connector. (4) Lan port- It is 8 pins connectors. (5) Wireless- Without connector.
Components of a computer
(1) Motherboard (2) CPU or Microprocessor (3) RAM or memory (4) HDD or SDD (5) ODD or DVD writer (6) SMPS.
We can say motherboard as a Main board or Printed circuit board. The motherboard is known as the interconnection of components in a computer and circuit board which have ports and sockets with transistors coating to connect components together. It is responsible for the contact of the flow of data and instruction with the help of Buses.
There are two categories of the motherboard- (a) Integrated mother motherboard- It comes with all parts integrated with it. (b) Non-integrated motherboard- It can add some other parts as per our needs.
It is used in desktop computer systems. It comes with upgradation capability. We can upgrade it easily.
It is used in laptops. All components are placed in limited space. Only rare motherboards allow upgradation capability.
It is used in the server. Bigger in size having many ports and designed for high-end works.
Types of motherboards
(1) Mini ATX
(2) Flex ATX
(3) Micro ATX
(5) Micro ATX
(9) Mobile ITX
A CPU socket or Cpu slot is a mechanical component that gives a mechanical and electrical connection between a microprocessor and computer circuit board. This allows the CPU to get replaced without soldering.
A memory slot/socket is what allows computer memory to be inserted into the computer. Depending on the motherboard, there’ll usually be 2 to 4 memory slots(sometimes more on high-end motherboards) and are what determine the sort of RAM used with the PC. The most common type of RAM is SDRM and DDR for desktop computers and SODIMM for laptop computers, it’s having various types and speeds.
Nonvolatile BIOS memory refers to a small memory on pc motherboards that are used to store BIOS settings. It was traditionally called CMOS memory(RAM) because it used a volatile, low-power complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor(CMOS).SRAM(such as Motorola MC146818 or similar) powered by a small battery when the system power was off.
ISA, PCI, and AGP slots
ISA(Industry-standard design)- It is an 8 bit or 16-digit equal Bus framework that permitted up to 6 gadgets to be associated with APC. Essentially all IBM viable PC’s made before the Pentium depended on the ISA (IBM’s PC AT) BUS. This nonconcurrent BUS design utilizes a 16-bit address and an 8 Mhz clock and handles a most extreme information throughput of 2MB’s to 3 MB’s.
AGP-Accelerates illustrations port is a rapid highlight point channel for appending a video card to a PC’s motherboard. The the essential preferred position of AGP over PCI is that IT gives a devoted pathway between the space and the processor instead of sharing the BUS.
PCI-Peripheral part interconnect BUS utilizes a nearby BUS framework, this framework is autonomous of the processor BUS speed. The PCI engineering fuses its own chipset which connects the nearby BUS to the primary BUS, these connections are called spans. There are two scaffolds which “North and south Bridge”.
A chipset is a bunch of electronic segments in an incorporated circuit that deals with the information stream between the processor, memory, and peripherals. It is normally found on the motherboard of a PC. Chipsets are generally intended to work with a particular group of microchips. Since it controls correspondences between the processor and outer gadgets, the chipset plays a urgent function in deciding framework execution.
The southbridge is one of the two chips in the center rationale chipset on a PC motherboard, the other being the northbridge. The southbridge ordinarily actualizes the more slow abilities of the motherboard in a northbridge/southbridge chipset PC engineering.
The northbridge commonly handles correspondences among the CPU, sometimes RAM, and PCI Express(or AGP) video cards, and the southbridge. Some northbridges additionally contain incorporated video regulators, otherwise called illustrations and memory regulator HUB(GMCH) in INTEL frameworks. Since various processors and RAM require diverse flagging, a given northbridge will commonly work with just a couple of classes of CPU’s and by and large just one sort of RAM.
A design card is a bit of PC equipment that creates the picture you see on a screen. The designs card is answerable for delivering a picture to your screen, it does this by changing over information into a sign your screen can comprehend.
A sound card is a development card or IC for creating sound on a PC that can be heard through speakers or earphones. In spite of the fact that the PC needn’t bother with a sound gadget to work, it is remembered for each machine in one structure or another, either in an extension space or incorporated into the motherboard.
An organization interface card(NIC) is an equipment part without which a PC can’t be associated with an organization. It is a circuit board introduced in a PC that gives a devoted organization associated with the PC. It is additionally called a network interface regulator, network connector, or LAN connector. Back panel “Connectors” and “ports”.
(1) SATA and IDE cables
(2) Power connection wires
(3) CPU fan wires
(4) Molex wire
(1) SATA AND IDE port 7 and 40 pins.
(2) 20-24 pins ATX port.
(3) 4 pins Bry port.
(4) for power in HDD 4 pins.
(3) Line out.
So, friends those are the key points I really wanted to point out to you as far as computer hardware best tutorial. In the next part of computer hardware best tutorial part-2 we will discuss what is computer CPU, secondary memory, categories of CPU, its types, features, BIOS and its types, etc. I hope it was helpful to you all, if it was helpful please like and share this with your friends and family. If You have any questions about this topic go ahead and leave them in the comment section and I will answer it For you, I want to thank you for taking the time to read this topic.