Hello, friends before we discuss computer technology we should learn the history and generations of computer systems. Can we think of the Universe without computers? A universe that human idea is no longer at our fingertips. The Universe that a system which we utilize all day just no longer remains. The word computer system specifies the devices that we collaborate with to perform, join, and play. After all, it classically defined systems that were utilized in operating countings with numbers. The growth of the earliest systems utilized for computing and how they turn into the computers which we trust today.
In this topic, we are discussing

Some historical devices, machines, and computers


The abacus was a computing system utilized for hundreds of years and is actually treated to be the first calculator.

In the 16th century, in China, the first calculating system was called Abacus. The same element of the structure is still unrecognized but the Sumerian abacus appeared as early as 2700-2300 BC in Mesopotamia.

It has been suggested in various developments throughout history, along with in Ancient Egypt, Persia, Greece, China, Rome, and India.

From one side to another, over the mid bar, some horizontal wires were attached every having two beads in little units that were known as Heaven, and 5 beads in the large unit known as earth.

From external to internal every wire was treated tens, hundreds, thousands, and so on.

The outstanding realization of the Chinese Abacus inspired the Japanese scientist to create another Abacus known as the Japanese Abacus.

Later that Russian was created an Abacus in which the mid-bar was extracted and every wire consists of ten beads, where the valve of every bead was one. This was known as the Russian Abacus.

Another well-known calculator from the past was the astrolabe, which was utilized to reach the top of celestial bodies in the sky.

The earliest known reference to one was from around the 2nd century BC in the Hellenistic advancement.

Also to its worth to astronomers, the astrolabe turns into essential for sailors since it granted them to resolve their provincial latitude on lengthy voyages.

One specifying aspect of advanced computers which divides them from normal calculators is the matter that they can be computed.

This grants them to undoubtedly operate secure acts without continual human input.


John Napier’s a Scottish mathematician created another calculating system called Napier’s Bones. He utilized a batch of eleven rods called Bones with numbers carved on them.

(3) Pascaline

The first mechanical calculator ‘Adding Machine’ or Pascaline was created in 1642 for removing out duplicate additions and substractions.

This was welcomed by a tremendous french mathematician and philosopher Blaise Pascal.

Pascaline calculator utilized gears, cogwheels, and dials. It acted related to the odometer of a car or scooter.

Its quickness was a lot of high in observation than the other none automatic systems build at that time.

(4) Jacquard's Punched Card

In 1801, a French inventor known Joseph Jacquard realized the plan of utilizing a card with a batch of holes (punched card) for weaving a system of cloth.

The mechanization of system weaving in looms was a primary profitable achievement.

After fifty years this the theory of coding over punched cards was fulfilled by Herman Hollerith and finally, the punched card appeared as the very essential and entering information.

(5) Difference and Analytical engine

In the 19th century, Charles Babbage an Englishman created a machine called deference engine which could do very big calculations.

It was visualized as the first programmable, mechanical device. The difference engine was specific up to the 10th position of the decimal.

In 1833, he made another machine, known as the ‘Analytical Engine’ which might perform quicker than ‘Difference Engine’.

This device was capable to work each of the calculations such as addition, substractions, division, multiplications automatically.

The Analytical engine further had storage to keep the information. This device, the information was reserved on the punched cards.

It was the primary prototype of the advanced computer. His model utilized punch cards to input directions that the device might execute.

Sadly, it varified more complicated to commercially formed and the design was rejected next the British government canceled financing.

The previous 20th century saw analog computers create more as they were focus to try to settle complicate mathematical issues. Charles Babbage for his worthy addition in the sector of computers is accepted as the “Father of computers”.

(6) Hollerith Machines (Punched card machines)

Herman Hollerith suggested a mechanized solution to the issue of information selection and cache by the creation of punched cards.

The code designed by Hollerith to produce information in the punched card is called as Hollerith code.

It is attractive to note that it was Hollerith, who next leftovers the US government service, initiated a company which lastly appears to be known as IBM, that continues a top computer producer till today.

(7) Differential Analyzer

The differential analyzer is the most excellent example of this and was created at MIT by Vannevar Bush in the 1920s.

Bush next turn into involved in the Manhattan scheme to manufacture nuclear weapons and equally influenced the innovation of the universe Web approximately 50 years back its production.

World War 2 managed to a capable surge in computer technology as nations tested to achieve the advantage up their competitors.

Computers were basically created to calculate firing tables to advance artillery efficiency and to crack competitor code to achieve reliable excellence.

(8) Harvard Mark-I

The first big-size digital or electro-mechanical computer system was created and manufactured by IBM by Howard Aiken in 1944 at Harvard University, it was one of the first machines that utilized electrical switches to keep numbers in a period of seconds.

When the switch was off, it reserved zero, and while on, it reserved the number one. Advanced computers pursue this related binary principle.


This time duration further saw the growth of vacuum tubes, which provided quicker action than historic relay switches.

The highest popular vacuum tube computer and one treated to be the ancestor of advanced systems was the ENIAC(ELECTRONIC NUMERICAL INTEGRATOR AND CALCULATOR), discovered by John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert in 1945 at the University of Pennsylvania.

It utilized thousands of vacuum tubes(18000). It was the first totally electronic and normal-reason digital computer but it had no internal storage.

Although vacuum tubes providing benefits over electro-mechanical switches, they had their own defects. They absorbed huge amounts of energy, were untrusted, and required more space.

(10) EDVAC

EDVAC(ELECTRONIC DISCRETE VARIABLE AUTOMATIC COMPUTER) was popularised by John Von Neumann and the theory of keeping both policy and information in the primary memory of the computer system.


The universal automatic computer(UNIVAC) was the first digital computer system. UNIVAC decided the appearance of financially purchasable digital computers for business and scientific applications.

It was advanced by two scientists Mauchly and Echert at the census department of the United States in 1947.

In 1947, three scientists at Bell Labs invented that semiconductors might be utilized to higher adequately intensify electrical signals.

This attends to the formation of the transistor, which paved the action for advanced computing.

Vacuum tubes were a lot bigger than transistors, they utilized zero energy if not in process, and were highly trusted.

William Shockley, one of the creators of the transistor, maintain refining it and discovered an industry in Palo Alto, California.

This would predict Silicon Valleys’ growth into the universal center of computing up the next few decades.

(12) EDSAC

EDSAC represents for electronic delay storage automatic calculator.  The system completed its first plan in 1949.

In this system, the Extention process holds 1500 microseconds, and the multiplications process 4000 microseconds.

A team of scientists started by Professor Maurice Wilkes at the Cambridge University mathematical laboratory-advanced this system.

In the late 1950s, two groups independently created the attached circuit, a selection of transistors and other parts which could be produced on a huge amount.

This was the main improvement which gets to computers declining around the 1960s.

In 1968, the normal-reason microprocessor was created and was the first example of the computer standing on a single chip.

(15) Apple computers

The decrease of microchips grants Intel to discharge a processor called the 8080 in 1974. This was utilized by hobbyists to create home computers.

One such hobbyist was Steve Wozniak, who coordinate with his friend Steve Jobs to establish a company named Apple and started selling home computers.

Though the first communication didn’t market well, their second system was sold as the Apple II and build up a reputation with home users, schools, and small-scale businesses for its simplicity of use.

(16) IBM computers

In 1976, Gary Kildall created a negotiator between a machine’s software and hardware, this turn into the first operating system.

IBM was ambitious to implement this into their PCs, however, after Kildall refused to sell to them, they became to a new programmer named Bill Gates at an industry known as Microsoft.

In 1980, the market leader for computers was IBM and they responded with their first personal computer, also dependent on the Intel 8080 processor.

The main problem with early computers was that they all utilized separate hardware, and programs written for one system would not work with others.

Later satisfying IBM to permit Microsoft to keep the rights to its operating system, Gates advanced MS-DOS, which he licensed to IBM and finally other PC producers.

This led Microsoft to turn into the titan it is today. At Apple, Steve Jobs was serious to build computers that might simple to use.

He was influenced by research that Xerox had organized in the 1970s, that combined computers with a desktop-like screen, mouse, and graphical utilizer interface.

Jobs rented these plans and finally started the Macintosh, which hit IBM’s reputation in the business.

These characteristics were finally realized by Bill Gates into Windows, which get to a copyright claim in the late 1980s. 

Microsoft ultimately overcome and Windows turn into the leading operating system for home personal computers, since that time windows position balances till now.

In the 1980s and before having notice computers identify various fresh applications. They became in watches, cars, cellphones, airplanes.

They became portable and continuous. At present, computers are all around the universe. And till the upcoming generations remains even higher bright.

Quantum computers could communicate a model alteration in the process of people may handle complex issues which today’s mechanisms cannot fix.

A change over from silicon should reunite the step of transistor improvement. Computers will be essential for us in touching out into the distance and analyzing the stars.

History and generations of computer

First generation

The time duration of basic or first-generation computers was from 1939 to 1956. These computers started with utilizing vacuum tubes due to the essential units for storage and chips for the CPU (Central processing unit).

Vacuum tubes related to electric bulbs made totally a character and were suffering to the frequent fusing of the settings up, therefore, were more costly and will be managed only by large scale managements or large companies.

In the first generation primarily information execution operating systems were utilized. During this generation punched cards, paper tape, magnetic tape input, and output systems were utilized.

There have been coding structures and electrically cabled panel languages utilized.

The primary characteristics of first-generation computers

(1) Vacuum tube technology (2) It was unreliable (3) Supported machine language only. (4) very expensive (5) Produces a lot of heat (6) Lazy input/output system (7) Large size (8) Requirement of A.C (9) Non-compact (10) Exhausts large volume of electricity

The important computers of this generation were ENIAC, EDVAC, UNIVAC, IBM-701, IBM-650, etc.

Second Generation

The utilization of the second generation was 1956-1964. This generation utilizing transistors was low priced, less power needed, more reduced in size more reliable, and faster than the first or primary generation devices produced from vacuum tubes.

At the time second-generation, magnetic cores were utilized as main storage, and magnetic tape, disks as secondary memory systems.

During this age programming language and high-level artificial language like FORTON, COBOL was utilized.

There are continuing lot assassinate and multi-programming processing framework utilized.

Chracterstics of second-generation

(1) Semiconductors are utilized (2) More trustworthy (3) Compress in size (4) Generate less heat. (5) Consumed less electricity (6) Quicker (7) Still very expensive (8) Requirement of AC (9) Guide low-level machine and assembly languages.

The main computer systems of this generation were IBM-1620, IBM-7094, CDC-3600, UNIVAC-1108.

Third generation

The period of the third generation from 1964 to 1972. The third generation computer was fixed aside by the performance of integrated circuits (I.C) or not semiconductors.

A single I.C has a lot of semiconductors, resistors, and capacitors nearly by similar hardware.

The I.C was created by Jack Kilby. This advancement made computers smaller in size, dependable, and efficient.

During this generation, remote processing, time-sharing, real-time, multi-programming operating systems were utilized.

These are the standard languages of third-generation computer systems ( Forton-II to IV, COBOL, PASCAL PL/1, BASIC, ALGOL-68, ETC.) was utilized during this generation.

The main features of third-generation

(1) I.C utilized (2) More reliable (3) Smaller size (4) Generate less heat (5) Faster (6) Lesser maintenance (7) More expensive (8) A.C needed (9) Required less power (10) Support application-oriented language

The important computer systems of this generation (1) IBM-360 series, Honeywell-6000 series (2) PDP(Personal data processor), IBM-370/168, TDC-316.

Fourth generation

The duration of the fourth generation from 1972 to 1990. These computers were noticeable by the utilization of very large-scale integrated(VLSI) circuits.

VLSI circuits having about 5000 semiconductors and other circuit units and associated circuits on a one-chip built it achievable to acquires microcomputers of this generation.

These computers turn into more capable, the minimum energy required, more secure, and less expensive. It provided growth to personal computer innovation.

In this generation time-sharing, real-time, networks, alloted managing devices were utilized. Entire the higher-level languages like C and C++, DATABASE, etc.

The imported characteristics of fourth-generation

(1) The VLSI technology utilized (2) Low cost (3) Portable and high trustworthy (4) Use of PC’s (5) Smaller in size (6) Pipeline transform (7) No A.C needed (8) Internet was started (9) Huge advancements in the department of networks (10) Computers turn into regularly available in the market.

The important computers of fourth-generation DEC-10, STAR-1000, PDP-II, CRAY-I, (SUPER COMPUTER), CRAY-X-MP(SUPER COMPUTER)

Fifth generation

The time duration of fifth-generation from 1990- to till date. In the fifth generation, VLSI Technology turns into ULSI(ULTRA LARGE SCALE INTEGRATION) technology dominant to the production of microprocessor chips having ten million electronic units.

This generation is likely on multitasking hardware and AI(artificial intelligence) software. AI is a developing section in computer science, that important process, and method for designing computers expect such as community.

All the very important level languages like C and C++, JAVA, net, etc, are utilized in this generation.

Robotics, Neural networks, game playing, advancement of expert frameworks to make decisions in real-life situations. Common language understanding and age.

The main features of fifth-generation

(1) ULSI Technology (2) Advancement of genuine A.I(artificial intelligence) (3) Advancement of everyday use language (4) Advancement in multi-tasking (5) Improvement in superconductor technology (6) More simple to understand interfaces with multimedia characters (7) Availability of more capacity and conservative computers at minimum cost.

Computer types of this generation are Desktop, Laptop, Palmtop, Notebook, Ultrabook, etc.

Common file types of all generations

(1) Word files – Files which by and large contain information in text format equal with its organizing and graphical definition.

(2) Spreadsheets– The content of a spreadsheet is a piece of paper or a computer program utilized for accounting and recording data utilizing rows and columns into that information can be inserted.

Microsoft excels in a program recording information utilizing rows and columns into which information can be entered.

Microsoft excels a program in which we insert data into columns, is an example of a spreadsheet program. Alike, Libreoffice is utilized in Linux depend on operating systems.

(3) PDF(Portable document format)– A document design for figuring and sending electronic files in exactly the intended format.

So friends, here we have discussed History and generations of computer. We also have discussed main features, computers, devices, inventors of computers, machines, common file types etc. Hope you all understand my language. If you need more information about it feel free to contact us. Thanks for your valuable time.

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