What is computer CPU and hardware categories?

(1) Part 1- Computer hardware best tutorial
(2) Part 2- What is computer CPU and hardware categories?

Hello, friends, in the last part computer hardware best tutorial part-1 we discussed what is computer hardware, its types, devices, connectors, etc. In this part we are discussing what is computer  CPU and categories. The main parts we are discussing are

The central processing unit (CPU) is the heart of a computer. CPU is the important component of our computer hardware system which is responsible for providing all types of information for performing tasks that we instruct. CPU manages all components of our computer hardware and instructs input, output, logic, and arithmetic to perform the system properly. It is attached to the motherboard under the cooling fan to stop the heatsink.

Computer hardware categories of CPU

Arithmetic logic unit

It executes all the Arithmetic, mathematical, algebra, and logical tasks like addition, divide multiplication, subtraction, and modules. It also acts on sensible work like OR, AND, and NOT.

Control unit

It is dependable for guiding the direction of data among the microprocessor and the external components of the computer applying the CPU BUSES.

Buses of CPU

CPU exists of 3 types of Buses. Generally, Buses are acted as an intermediary or carrier of information or data among the microprocessor, the memory, and components of the system. It transports the instruction from memory to CPU and back CPU to memory after processing and back CPU to memory after processing.

(1) Data Bus – It sends and receives data to memory.

(2) Address Bus – It sends the address of inputs to the memory or RAM.

(3) Control Bus – It makes communication between CPU and components.

Major specification of Microprocessor

Clock speedClock speed is a unit to calculate the numbers the instructions executed by the operating microprocessor within a second is said to clock speed. It is measured in GHz.

Operating voltage – It measures how much power or voltage a microprocessor requires to execute tasks.

FSB – It stands for front side BUS. It is a data Bus that fetches the information from RAM to the processor and back processor to RAM as undertaking commands.

Major Brands of Microprocessor

(1) Intel – Intel Corporation is an American multinational corporation and technology company and the largest producer of the microprocessor in the planet.

(2) AMD – Advanced micro-device is an American multinational semiconductor company that also produces GPU and the most selling microprocessor type in the world.

(3) NVIDIA – It is an American technology company. It designs graphics processing units for gaming and microprocessor units for everyone.


The procedure of inserting the microprocessor into the motherboard is called packaging. In motherboard, there are various kinds of packaging for different types of microprocessors. Packing is located on which microprocessor we need to insert into our system. The processor is inserted and fixed with the socket in the microprocessor.

Sockets for CPU

Providing system sockets are assembled or an array of pins that holds microprocessor. Sockets are utilized to balance the position of the microprocessor in the motherboard. These are classified according to the types and editions of the microprocessor.

Specification of AMD

Overclocking – Overclocking is the process in which we consume more performance than the processor have you can simply overclock the performance of AMD processor up to 42 GHz in the latest technology.

Graphics – AMD supplies their processor an onboard GPU unit. We are able to execute mid-range games and operate high-end works like video rendering.

EVP(Enhanced Virus Protection) – AMD delivers EVP in their processors that create anti-malware protection from viruses and protects the microprocessor.

Gaming and Graphics tasks – AMD is more capable for gaming and media performance tasks because it has complete stability of risks at the moment, which creates the high-end presentation.

Cost – AMD is more affordable than intel and also arranges a good impression. If you need a cheaper rate go with AMD.

Specification of Intel

Overclocking – Overclocking is the method that we receive more performance than the processor has. We can exactly overclock the execution of an Intel processor up to 4.4 GHz in up-to-date technology.

Hyper threading – It is a technology designed by Intel that a single material processor can perform as double logical processors.

EDB(Execute disable bit) – Intel provides EDB in their processors which make protection from the virus and protects microprocessor as similar as AMD’s EVP.

Cores and threats – Intel provides 32 threats of 14 nano meters technology and 12 cores in their up-to-date processor that gives a higher quality execution to the user in multitasking. This is much more in comparison to AMD.

EIST(Enhanced Intel Speed Step technology)– EIST is a thermal-based technology that enhances the microprocessor performance as per the requirement which the user needs while working. It can change action allowing for requirement valid low performance during which company acts and high performance for gaming and high purposes, it stops heat and converts the load from the processor which we don’t need it.


(1) If we need a Laptop it’s better to go with Intel because AMD consumes more power and also releases more heat. So for Laptops Intel is best.
(2) AMD is less expensive than Intel and also provides an onboard graphics unit.
(3) If we need to multitask and runs multiple tasks at the same time so, we should go with Intel because Intel brings more threats and cores than AMD which supplies
us a better performance.
(4) AMD and Intel both come with virtualization and Turbo boost technology inbuilt that helps to provides more than their capability and also runs two OS at a time.
(5) Intel has much better service in India comparing to AMD if we are buying for office purposes we can go with Intel because in this office workload is too high where processors maintenance time by time.

Heat Sink(Solution for overheating)

When we use systems for a long time it releases lots of heat. To stop and purification heat we install a Heatsink in our motherboard. A heatsink that has one or two  fans installed is known as an Active heatsink. The heatsink is attached to a microprocessor with the contact of thermal paste or grease which extremely absorbs heat from the microprocessor.

Mobile Processors

Mobile processor is similar to Laptop or desktop processors but are smaller in size power incapacity. They are specially designed for portable devices such as mobiles, tablets, and calculators, etc. They don’t contain specs like overclocking and turbo boost. They are designed for simple tasks like messaging, watching videos or playing games, etc.


Memory is an essential part of computers to store data and instructions. Computer memory is a visible device efficient in storing data temporarily or permanently.

Types of memory

(1) Primary memory  (2) Secondary memory

Primary memory

This is the main memory of the computer. CPU can straight read or write on this memory. It is linked to the motherboard of the computer.

Features of primary memory

(1) It is linked directly by the processor.
(2) It is the fastest memory available.

Types of primary memory


Read-only memory is called firmware. In this memory, stored data cannot be modified. It is a non-volatile memory.ROM normally keeps the startup commands. While the computer is power on, the first part of the direction of a program examined by the CPU is BIOS which is a ROM preorganized to start the computer activities.

There are two kinds of ROM- (1) PROM  (2) EPROM

(1) PROM -Programmable read-only memory is blank of information while the chip is created. It can be programmed by the user and once arranged the data can’t be erased.

(2)EPROM – It has two types-

(a) EEPROM- Electrically erasable programmable read-only memory can be recorded to or programmed. It can be removed with the support of electrical devices so information can be simply reformed.


(b) Flash Memory – It is a nonvolatile memory. It can be removed electrically and edited like EEPROM.


RAM stands for Random Access Memory. It gets the word ‘RANDOM’ because data can be entered in non-sequential order. Through the information itself is reserved commonly, it could be anywhere in the storage or amount of RAM available. It is a type of memory that computers use to reserved information and software to which is requires to process immediately. A volatile memory, that is the information reserved inside vanishes when the computer is turned off.

Types of RAM –  (1) SRAM  (2) DRAM

(1) SRAM– Static RAM is a kind of RAM that includes its information without external refresh, for as long as power is provided to the circuit. It is compared to dynamic RAM(DRAM), which must be recreated many times per second in order to contain its information categories. It also utilized for a computer’s cache memory.

(2) DRAM– Dynamic RAM is the advanced computer memory of the vast majority of the present time desktop computers. It is a volatile memory that requires to be recreated with voltage continuously, otherwise, it fails the data stored on it as soon as power is withdrawn.

Difference between RAM and ROM



(1) It is nonvolatile. 

(2) It is written permanently, not erased.

(3) It does not require electricity to retain data.

(4) ROM is the memory that attaches with our computer that is pre-written to brings all the directions for booting up the computer.

(1) It is a volatile memory.

(2) In RAM information is not securely on record while pc switch off, data erased.

(3) It requires the flow of electricity to written data.

(4) RAM is the memory available for the operating system programs and processes to utilized when the computer is running.

Cache memory

Cache memory also called CPU memory, is random access memory that a computer microprocessor can fetch faster than it can access continue RAM. It is usually added straightly with the CPU chip or placed on another chip that has a separate Bus interlinked with the CPU.

Cache memory levels are – 

Level 1 cache – It is ultra -speed but comparatively small and is generally attached with the processor chip(CPU). It is very small (8 KB to 128 KB).

Level 2 cache – Level 2 cache is external to the processor chip contributes to the motherboard or near the microprocessor. It is much bigger than Level 1(64 KB to 16 Mb).

Lavel 3 cache – It is generally a personalized memory that works to upgrade the capacity of L 1 and L 2. It can be importantly much lazier than L 1 and L 2. But it normally increases the speed of RAM. In the case of a multi-core processor, every core may have its own dedicated L 1 and L 2 cache. But share an advanced L 3 cache. Its PC has up to 8 Mb. But the server can have 8 Mb to 24 Mb.

Synchronous DRAM

SDRAM is a generic name for various kinds of dynamic random access memory (DRAM) that are synchronized with the clock speed that the the microprocessor is optimized for. It is available in DIMM(Dual In-Line Memory Module). Its clock speed is MHz.

SDRAM classification– (1) DDR SDRAM  (2) DDR2 SDRAM  (3) DDR3 SDRAM  (4) DDR4 SDRAM.

DDR SDRAM – It is also named DDR1 SDRAM. It is a multiple data rate SDRAM. This kind of SDRAM allowed information deliver at twice the speed of the the traditional type of SDRAM memory. This is obtained by delivering information twice per circle. DDR DIMMs have 184 pins.

DDR 2 SDRAM – DDR2 is a faster version of DDR memory. Its DIMMs have 240 pins. Its speed of data transfers from 400 MHz to 1066 MHz. It requires less power consumption and heat generation.

DDR 3 SDRAM – It is a further development of the double data rate type of SDRAM. It brings further growth in overall performance and speed.

DDR 4 SDRAM – It provides a lower operating voltage (1.2v) and a higher transfer rate.

Secondary memory of computer hardware

Hard disk drive

A hard disk drive (HDD) is a data memory device used for storing and fetching digital data utilizing quickly circulating disks(platters) covered with magnetic material. An HDD stores its information even when power off. Data is browsed at the time of a random-access manner, purpose separate blocks of knowledge are often stored or retrieved in any order instead of sequentially.

Types of HDD

SATA(Serial advanced technology attachment) – It is 7 pins for data 15 pins power for pins Molex speed up to 600 MBPS. SATA 1-150 MBPS, SATA 2 – 300 MBPS, SATA 3- 600 MBPS.

IDE(Integrated Drive Electronics) – It is 40 pins for data 4 pins Molex speed up to 133 MBPS.

Components of HDD

Disk Platter – (a) The platter is made up of a magnetic material, in the flate disk part of the drive.  (b) The data stored on the platter.  (c) Each set of the magnetic lenses has collected a unit called a bit. 

Stepper motor – (a) Use stepper motors for controlling read/write head position. (b) Stepper motors usually use +12v power, but some new low power drives use a +5v power source.

Read and write head – (a) The heads read and write the information to the drive platter. (b) The head writes magnetic data on the platter.

Disk structure

TrackThe HDD is divided into a number of concentrates circles called the track.

Sector – Data storage area in single track multiple divided into multiple blocks is known as a sector. Every sector may have 512 bytes of data.

File system in HDD

(1) FAT(File allocation table) – (a) It’s not secure  (b) Partition size in max 32 GB.  (C) Doesn’t accepts data comparison.  (d) Doesn’t accept disk quota.

(2) NTFS(New technology file system) – (a) Its security.  (b) The partition size is 1 terabyte.  (c) It accepts information comparison  (d) It accepts disk quota.

SSD(Solid State Drive)

It is a storage device used as secondary memory it does not have plater or rotating parts in it. It is made up of storage ROM chips. That’s why it is faster than HDD and also costly in comparison to HDD.

Types of SSD –  (1) SATA SSD  (2) NVMe SSD  (3) PCIe SSD  (4) M.2 SSD  (5) M SATA  SSD

ODD(Optical Disk Drive)

It is a device used to input DVD or CD into the computer system. It uses a laser beam to read CD, DVD. It is also known as a DVD writer of three types of ODD.

Types of ODD

(a) Compact Disk(CD) – It is storage used to store data in magnetic forms stores 700 MB of data comes in read, write and re-write.

(b) Digital versatile disk(DVD) – It is storage used to store data in magnetic forms stores 4.7 GB in a single layer and 9.4 GB in dual-layer of data comes in read, write, and re-write.

(c) Blue- Ray-Disk – It is storage used to store data in magnetic forms stores 25 GB of data in a single layer and 50 GB in dual-layer comes in reading, write, and re-write.

SMPS(Switched-mode power supply)

It is a device utilized to input power to all components of the motherboard it contains different colors wires having different voltage for different components in the CPU cabinet.

CMOS battery

It is used to update dates and times while the system is off. It stands for complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor. It having a connection with RTC and jumper settings to reset BIOS.


BIOS is a small ROM chip on the motherboard. It is a basic software program containing all BIOS functions that are permanently stored in the ROM. This software functions as a basic operating system. It is responsible for starting the PC. It is combined with software is also points to as firmware.

Functions of BIOS 

When we turn on our PC it requires information to detect PC components to find the operating system(Floppy disk, hard drive, or CD ROM). This information stored in BIOS PC bootstrap leader loads booting file while starting the computer, it tests start, Hard drive, memory, and battery test.

BIOS updating

The BIOS is manufactured on flash technology. It is easily updated previous versions of BIOS were developed on ROM, EPROM, and EEPROM chips update BIOS using windows executable file or bootable USB stick.

Types of BIOS

Legacy BIOS – It is a character user interface and works only keyboard. It doesn’t show large storage devices.

UEFI BIOS– It is a graphical user interface and works with a keyboard and mouse. It shows large storage devices.

BSOD(Blue screen of death)

A stop error commonly called the blue screen of death. BSOD is a mistake screen displayed on a windows computer system following a fatal instruction. It indicates a system crash, in which the operating system has reached conditions where it can no longer operate safely.

POST(Power on the self-test)

It takes place immediately after our PC power turns on. It contains diagnostic routines for initializing the hardware and peripherals. It checking their functions like the video card, the main memory, the processor, and the keyboard. It shows an error message on the screen if an error is detected. If the monitor cannot be detected, the beep codes are output by the system loudspeaker.

So, friends in this topic we have discussed what is computer CPU, computer hardware  secondary memory,  categories of CPU, its types, features, BIOS and its types, specialization, differences of its parts, etc. those are the key things I really wanted to point out to you as far as computer hardware best tutorial part-2. If you like this topic please comment and share it.

Spread the love