What is computer network?

On this topic we are going to discuss what is computer network and its types. Here are the main points we are discussing below-

A computer network including multiple devices which are connected that one may send properties(like printers and CDs), transaction data, or permit electronic connections. The computer devices on a network might be connected over cables, telephone lines, radio waves, satellites, or infrared light beams.

Benifits of learning computer network

Before we discuss we should have to know about the benefits of learning what is computer network. So here are some benefits that we should know

(1) Computer network skill makes our better future ahead.
(2) Heaving great opportunities for computer networking.
(3) Demanding skill of computer networking.
(4) Computer Network administrator.
(5) First step to computer security.
(6) High salary packages for computer network jobs.

Basic types of Network

(1) A local area network (LAN)
(2) Personal area network (PAN)
(3) Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
(4) Wide Area Network (WAN)
(5) Campus Area Network (CAN)
(6) Storage Area Network (SAN)

Local Area Network(LAN)

(1) A LAN is a network that is used for communication among computer devices, normally within a workstation or private property.
(2) LANs enable the sharing of resources such as files or hardware devices that may be needed through one more utilizers in a small capacity, consistently connecting a little hundred meters and no higher than a mile.
(3) Is, fast with speeds from 10 Mbps to 10 Gbps.
(4) Requires a little wiring, typically a single cable connecting to each device.
(5) Has lower cost compared to MAN’s or WAN’s.
(6) LAN’s can be either wired or wireless. Twisted pair, coax or fiber optic cable can be used in wired LANs.

Advantages of LAN

(1) Speed  (2) Cost  (3) Security  (4) Resource sharing

Personal Area Network(PAN)

(1) A PAN is a network that is used for communicating among computer devices, usually at home.
(2) PAN’s enable the sharing of resources such as files or hardware devices that may be needed by multiple users are limited in size, typically spanning a few hundred meters.
(3) Is fast, with speeds from 10 Mbps to Gbps.
(4) Requires little wiring, typically a single cable connecting to each device.
(5) Has lower cost compared to MAN’S and WAN’s.
(6) LAN’s can be either wired or wireless. Twisted pair, coax or fiber optic cable can be used in wired LANs.

Advantages of PAN

(1) Speed (2) Cost (3) Security (4) Resource sharing

Metropolitan Area Network(MAN)

(1) A metropolitan area network(MAN) Is a large computer network that specially spans a city or a huge area.
(2) A MAN is upgraded for a bigger geographical space than a LAN, starting from certain blocks of buildings to whole places.
(3) A MAN might be owned and operated by a single organization, but it usually will be used by many individuals and organizations.
(4) A MAN often as a high-speed network to allow sharing of regional resources.
(5) A MAN typically covers an area of between 5 and 50 km diameter.

Examples of MAN- Telephone company network that provides a high-speed DSL to customers and cable TV network.

Wide Area Network(WAN)

(1) WAN covers a large geographic area such as country, the continent, or even the whole of the world.
(2) A WAN is two or more LANs connected. The LANs may be several miles aside. To manage large areas, WANs may transfer information over rented much-quicker phone lines or wireless links like satellites.
(3) Multiple LANs can be connected using devices such as bridges, routers, or gateways, which enable them to share data. The world’s most popular WAN is the internet.

Campus Area Network(CAN)

(1) A campus area network (CAN) is a network of multiple interconnected local area networks(LAN) In a limited geographical area. A can is smaller than a wide area network(WAN) or metropolitan area network(MAN).
(2) A CAN is also known as a corporate area network(CAN).
(3) CAN benefit are as follows- (1) Cost-effective (2) Wireless, versus cable (3) Multi-departmental network access.

Advantages of CAN

(1) Speed (2) Reliability (3) Campus interconnection (4) Better for every consumer.

Storage Area Network(SAN)

A Storage area network(SAN) is a specialized, high-speed network that provides block-level network access to storage. SAN’s are typically composts of hosts,
switches, storage elements, and storage devices that are interconnected using a variety of technologies, topologies, and protocols. SAN might access every server
to devided storage as if it were a drive straightly connected to the server. While a host needs to connect a storage system on the SAN, it sends out a block-
based connection request for the storage system.

Advantages of SAN

(1) Low expense  (2) Fault tolerance  (3) Disk mirroring  (4) Real-time update  (5) Administrator control

What are the peer-to-peer and server-client model?

Point-to-point model – It’s only two devices that are connected to each other is assumed due to the point-to-point model.

Server-client model – It is that the connection between two computers within which one, the client, makes a service request from another, the server.

Difference between Client-server and Peer-to-peer model.

Server-client model

Peer-to-peer model

(1) Client/Server has the control ability while clients don’t.

(2) Client/Server Higher cabling cost.

(3) Client/Server is used in small and large networks.

(4) Client/Server is easy to manage.

(5) Client/Server installs the software in the server while the clients share the software.

(6) Client /server One powerful computer acting as server.

(1) All computers have equal ability.

(2) Peer-to-peer is Cheaper cabling cost.

(3) Peer-to-peer is normally used in small networks with less than 10 computers.

(4) Peer-to-peer is hard to manage.

(5) Peer-to-peer install software to every computer.

(6) Peer-to-peer no server is needed.

What is Internet working ?

Connect over two networks says of as Internet working.

Types of networking terminology


Any system or device connected to a network is termed a node. as an example, if a network connects a digital computer, five computers, and two printers, there are eight nodes on the network. Each device on the network features a network address, like a MAC address, which uniquely identifies each device.


In wired computer networking, including the web, hop occurs when a packet is passed from one network segment to the following. The hop count refers to the several intermediate devices through which data must pass between source and destination.


Terminal is an interface once we can input instruction( it’s a command-line interface)


It’s a group of instructions that is employed for a specific task. In computing, a command could be a directive to a bug to perform a particular task. It maybe issued via a command-line interface, like a shell, or as input to a network service as a part of a network protocol, or as an occurrence during a graphical user interface triggered by the user selecting an option in an exceeding menu.


A shell could be a computer virus that presents a command-line interface that permits you to manage your computer using commands entered with a keyword rather than controlling graphical user interfaces (GUI’s) with a mouse/keyboard combination.


An endemic is additionally a program that’s very harmful to our system and data. it’s a foul program and also the virus deleted our files or data.


It’s an activity that’s performed by a hacker or an attacker to hack the info or guidance.


Someone who has extraordinary knowledge within the computer field and therefore the hacker may be a soul because he hacks the data of a victim or hacks confidential information.


The attacker is additionally a hacker in technology.


Phishing is that the process to hack information online hackers. Phishing could be a site cleaner or it’s a method that’s utilized by hackers or an attacker to make a fake website of any original site.


Vulnerability may be a technical term during this we will find the dearth of any computer, program, any services. Or the user can analyze the safety setting in any computer machine.


OS represents for the software package and it’s accustomed create a computer program between user and hardware. Also, we will say it enable or activate the hardware and provide an interface.


It is also a program. it’s a tiny low program that’s wont to boot or activate the hardware of the machine. The firmware could be a software program or set of instructions programmed on a hardware device. Firmware is often stored within the flash ROM.


The BIOS software contains several various roles, but its most significant role is to load the package after we activate the pc.


The most amount of knowledge transmitted over a web connection in a very given amount of your time. Calculated in MBPS megabits per second.

MBPS- Megabytes per second.

Mbps- Megabits per second (1 MBPS= 8 Mbps)

RF vs analog signal- RF stands for radio frequency. And analog is additionally a symptom wont to connect and share info from one point to a different.

What is FCS?

FCS stands for frame check sequence. During this process, we learn the frame checking process while transmitting the info.

Types of networking devices

Networking devices is to connect LANs, connecting devices are needed and various connecting devices are such as

(1) NIC card  (2) Repeater  (3) HUB  (4) Bridge  (5) SWITCH  (6) Gateway  (7) Routers  (8) Modem 

(1) Network card or NIC

It stands for Network Interface Controller. It used to connect the Ethernet cable(RJ 45), (SC, ST, CONNECTOR) with the PC. It is a card which have Mac address written on it.

Parts of NIC- (1) Metal Expansion card (2) Boot ROM chip (3) 32 bit PCI controller (4) Activity LED (5) RJ 45 LAN port Types of NIC- (1) Wireless NIC (2) Wired NIC

(3) HUB

Repeater used to regenerate or replicate a signal. It removes the unwanted noise in an incoming signal, it works on Layer 1 of the OSI Model. Repeater is used in some scaled area and it refines the signals and manage the proper speed of the network.

Repeater connecting two segments of a LAN

(A) Right to left transmission– Corrupted signal to-Repeater- to-Regenerated signal.

(B) Left to right transmission– Regenerated signal to- Repeater-to- corrupted signal.

(3) HUB

(3) HUB

HUB is a networking device that is used to connect multiple network devices as a central point and also it is used to connect a single network connection segment and distribute to multiple devices. HUB’s are commonly used to connect segments of LAN. HUB employed on the physical layer of the OSI model. It used where we  have to create multiple ethernets with the help of a networking device. It comes with a different port segment like 6, 12, 24.

(4) Switch

Switch is connecting multiple devices in an exceedingly LAN and connect one network segment and share it with other network devices. It’s centralized management connection. It works on the info link layer of the OSI model. The switch is best than HUB.

Types of Switch- L2 and L3

L2- It’s an unmanageable switch because it’s no feature of routing.

L3- It’s a manageable switch and uses to configure the routing protocols. L3 switch is expensive from L2. L3 switch is more safer and reliable for networking.

Switching– In this technology, we are able to create a reliable communication path from source to destination.

Features of Switching

(1) Circuit switching– Method to end-to-end-communication and establish the dedicated path.

(2) Packet switching– In this method we learn to process communication (switching).

Types of packet switching

(a) Datagram Switching – This is the process that one node sends the information to a different note independently. There’s no dedicated path device that’s free to
communicate the destination via any path.

(b) Virtual circuit packet switching– Network admin can make a dedicated path before forwarding the packet.

Difference between HUB and Switch



(1) They operate within the physical layer of the OSI model.

(2) It’s a non-intelligent network device that sends messages to any ports.

(3) It primarily broadcasts messages.

(4) Transmission mode is half-duplex.

(5) Collisions may occur during the set up of transmission when multiple computers place data simultaneously within the corresponding ports.

(6) They’re passive devices, they don’t have any software related to them.

(7) They often have fewer ports of 4, 8, 12 ports.

(1) They operate within the data link layer of the OSI model.

(2) It’s an intelligent network device that sends messages to chosen destination ports.

(3) It supports unicast, multicast, and broadcast.

(4) Transmission mode is full-duplex.

(5) Collisions don’t occur since the communication is full-duplex.

(6) They’re active devices, equipped with network software.

(7) The quantity of ports is higher-4,8,24,48.

Types of data transmission

(1) Unicast– one to another communication.

(2) Multicast– One to multiple communication but not to all.

(3) Broadcast– One to all/any communication.

(5) Bridge

A network bridge may be a computer networking device that produces one aggregate network from multiple communication networks or network segments. This the function is known as network bridging. Bridging is distinct from routing. Bridge devices inspect incoming network traffic and determine whether to forward or discard it according to its intended destination it operates on the info link layer. It’s a kind of computer network device that gives interconnection with other bridge networks that use the identical protocol. A bridge doesn’t change the physical(MAC) addresses within the frame.

(6) Gateway

Gateway connects two networks along with the assistance of gateway devices like fire wire and router. It’s a node between the general network and private the network which makes some security with the assistance of identification. It works as a gate between devices.

(7) Routers

Routers are an L3 networking device and it’s used to route the packet over the network. It’s used to manage the WAN network as well as LAN also and used to provide interaction between two different networks. The router is used to build inter-network communication. It gives us wired and wireless connections.

There are two types of routers- (A) Cisco routers (B) Basics router

(A) Cisco router– (1) To manage network (2) Connect different network id’s (3) Provide best path (4) Avoid collision and manage broadcast (5) Traffic control and filter the packet. (6) Provide data security using various types of encryption protocols.

Ports of Cisco routers

(1) Ethernet port– Which is used to attach PC or host or switches.

(2) Fast Ethernet– Which is used to attach PC or host or switches.

(3) Gigabit Ethernet- Which is used to attach pc or host or switches.

(4) Serial port– It’s used to attach the router to the router.

(5) Console port- used to access the router for configuration.

(6) AUX port– Use to attach the modem.

(8) Modem

The modem is a hardware part that permits a computer or another device, like a router or switch, to attach to the internet. It converts or modulates an analog signal from a telephone or cable wire to digital data (1s or 0s) that a computer can recognize. It converts digital data from a computer or other device into an analog signal which will be sent over standard telephone lines. MODEM is a short form of “Modulator-Demodulator”. The main difference between the two devices is  that a Modem lets us connect to the internet, while a router distributes that connection to different devices. A Modem is a gateway to the web, while a router is a central HUB for our devices.


The server is a highly configure device computer system that is used to provide services over LAN or WAN.


A network rack is a metal frame chassis that holds, protects various computer network and server hardware devices. It arranges and connects any types of working equipment and devices like routers, modems, switches, repeaters, bridges, etc. It uses at large companies, banks, organizations.

Access point

An access point is used to extend the network segment length over wizard or wireless. An access point is a device that makes a wireless local area network, or WLAN usually in an office or large building. An access point connects to a wired router, switch, or hub via an Ethernet cable, and projects a wi-fi signal to designated area.

CAM table

CAM stands for content address memory it’s a switch technology and its store the IP and make table details or switching table details in switch technology over a network.

So friends, in this part we h ave discussed what is computer network, and its types, advantages, differences, etc. In the what is  computer network part 2 we will discuss computer network Topology, advantages, OSI model, TCP/IP model, differences, etc. If you like this page please, like, comment and share.

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