Hello, friends, today we will discuss computer software and its types. Before discussing computer software we have to know the benefits of computer software. Software skill improves productivity, increase our revenue, reduce repair costs, and provide quality service. Good practice to do troubleshooting with knowledge makes Us smarter, and we can easily identify computer software faults. Better job opportunities in technology sectors. Computer software is important as the blood of Information technology. It helps to understand all concepts and language of computer works. Its parts are important to the operating system and to troubleshoot Intelligence with precautions. For these reasons, computer software learning is important to us.
Now, we will discuss the main parts of computer software.
Computer software is a program or set of instructions that instruct the user on the machine and tell the hardware what to do are called a computer software. It is The combination of instruction and data.
Types of computer software
The software can broadly be classified into two categories-
(1) System software (2) Application software
(1) System software
It manages and controls the hardware components and allows the interaction between the user and the hardware. It required for the working of Computer itself. The user of the computer doesn’t need to be aware of the functioning of the system software while using the computer. For example, when we buy a Computer, The software also includes different device drivers.
The purposes of system software
(a) To provide basic functionality to a computer. (b) To control computer hardware (c) To act as an interface between the user, application software, and computer Hardware.
System Softwares of computer
(1) Operating system (OS)
It is an essential component of a system to run programs. It is an interface between the user of a computer and the computer hardware. It Found in any devices such as cell phones, video game consoles, supercomputers, web servers, etc. Example- UNIX, MS-DOS, WINDOWS, MAC OS, all the basic tasks like file Management, handling input, and output devices are performed by us.
Functions of operating system
(a) Booting of computer
The process of starting or restarting the computer is known as booting. A cold boot is when we turn on a computer that has been turned off completely. A warm boot is a process of using the operating system to restart the computer.
(b) Performs basic computer tasks
The operating system performs basic Computer tasks, such as managing the various peripheral devices such as the mouse, keyboard, the printers. For example- In today’s most operating systems are plug and Play, Which means a device such as a printer will automatically be detected and configured without any intervention.
(c) Provides a user interface
It interacts with its software through the user interface. The two main types of interfaces are command line and Graphical user Interface.
(d) Provides file management
The operating system also handles the organization and tracking of files and directories (folders) saved or retrieved from a computer disk. The file management system allows the User Performs such tasks, creating files and directories, renaming files, copying and moving files, and deleting files. Common operating systems are MS WINDOWS, MAC OS, LINUX.
Types of operating system
(1) Batch operating system
The users of the batch operating system do not interact with the computer directly. Each user prepares his job on an off-Line Device liked punched cards and submits them to the computer operator. The speed up processing, jobs with similar needs are based together and run as a group. The programmers leave their programs with the operator and the operator then sorts the programs with similar requirements into batches.
(2) Time-sharing operating system
Time sharing is a type of OS that enables many People, located at various terminals, to use a particular computer system at the same time. Because of these features, time-sharing OS is called multitasking OS. In other words, it is a logical extension of multiprogramming processor time, which is shared among multiple users simultaneously is termed as time-sharing.
(3) Single user, single task OS
It is designed to manage the computer so that one user can effectively do one thing at a time. The palm OS for Palm handled computer is a good example of a modern single-user, single-task operating system.
(4) Single user, multitask OS
It is mostly used by people which are using desktop and laptop computers today. Microsoft Windows and Apple Mac OS platforms are both examples of OS that will let a single user have several programs operating at the same time. For example, its Entirely possible for a Windows user to be writing a note in a word processor while downloading a file from the internet while printing the text of an email message.
(5) Embedded OS
It is a computer that is part of a different kind of a machine. Examples include computers in cars, traffic lights, digital television, ATMs, airplane controls, point of sale terminals, digital cameras, GPS navigation systems, elevators, digital media Receivers and smart meters, among many other possibilities.
(6) Mobile operating system
It is specially designed to run on mobile devices such as mobile phones, smartphones, PDAs, tablet computers, and other handheld devices. The mobile OS is the software platform on top of which other programs, called application programs, can run on Mobile devices. Examples- Apple is, windows phone, and Google android.
(7) Multiprogramming os
Sharing the processor, when two or more programs reside in memory at the same time is referred as multi-programming. Multi-programming assumes a single shared processor. Multi-programming increases CPU utilization by organizing programs/data so that the CPU always has one to execute.
It is a program that links several object modules and libraries to a single executable program.
It is required to protect and maintain the computer system. It is used for supporting and enhancing the programs and the data in the computer. Some utility software may Come embedded with OS and others may be added later on. It doesn’t directly interface with the hardware. Example-antivirus software, firewall, etc.
Functions of utility software
(1) Disk cleanup
It is a function that comes with All versions of the Windows operating system. Disk cleanup allows for us to scan our entire hard drive to search for an extra room by deleting any unnecessary files Such as Temporary files from the internet and cookies that are downloaded when we visit web pages. We can find disk cleanup in windows by going to the start menu- all Programs- accessories- system tools- disk cleanup.
(2) Disk Defragmentation
It’s the process of locating the non-contiguous fragments of information into which a file could also be divided because it is stored on a hard disk, and rearranging the Fragments and Restoring them into fewer fragments or into the entire file.
(3) System restore
It’s a windows utility that permits a user to revive their computer data to a selected former state (known as a restore Point) undoing changes made from that point. System restores are often found by visiting start-all programs-accessories-system tools-system restores.
(4) Disk compression
It’s a kind of function that enables a program to look at our hard drive and compress files, particularly old or unused files. It also serves to unlock space, which is the main function of disk compression software.
It is used to scan computers for viruses and stop the PC system files from being corrupt.
Device driver software
It’s a computer program that operates and controls a specific form of device that’s attached to a computer. It provides an interface between the hardware and software devices, enabling OS and other programs to access the hardware functions. Some device drivers are- Keyboard, mouse, hard disk, printer, speakers, Microphone, joystick webcam, scanner, camera, and monitor.
Translator of computer software
A computer program that converts application-oriented language and programming language into a form that the PC can understand. Translator of software converts a program Written in a programming language, a high-level language into a machine level language program. The translated program is termed the target code.
Programming language of computer software
A programming language consists of a group of vocabulary and grammar rules, to precise the computations and tasks that the PC needs to perform. Programming language usually refers to high-level languages like COBOL, BASIC, FORTON, C, C++, JAVA, ETC.
Programming language categories
(1) Machine language
It’s what the PC can understand, but it’s difficult for the programmer to understand. Machine languages, incorporates of members Only. It’s quite CPU has its own unique machine language.
(2) Assembly language
It falls in between machine language and high-level language. They’re the same as machine language, but easier to program in, because They allow the programmer to substitute names for numbers.
(3) High-level language
It’s easier to know and use for the programmer, but difficult for the PC.
(2) Application software
Application software is a task-oriented software that performs specific tasks for the users. It’s also called end-user programs that used to do real work for users. Application the software could also be one program or a group of programs. A group of programs that are written for a particular purpose and supply required functionality is named software Package.
Example- VLC media player, ms word, ms paint, MS PowerPoint, tally, database, graphics, word processors, telecommunications, accounting purposes, etc.
Application software packages
(1) Word processing
The most important computer software that they are most commonly used to create, print, and edit documents. Data processing, software allows Users to form and manipulate documents that contain text and graphics. Example- Microsoft word, google docs, apple works, open office.org, etc.
It’s a kind of document that stores the all data in an exceedingly grid form consisting of horizontal rows and vertical columns. This row/column The structure allows the analysis of knowledge using formulas and calculations. With spreadsheet software, data is organized in rows and columns which collectively are called a worksheet. The intersection of row and column called a cell, it can contain a level (name of cells), a worth of the amount, or formula or function that performs calculations on the information and displays the result. Example- MS excel.
(3) Presentation graphics
Presentation graphics are named presentation software. It’s a type of application software that helps you to make different timing and The organized sequence of data and pictures that present a story or help in giving a show of data through a slide show. Example- Microsoft PowerPoint, apple keynote, open office impress, Corel presentations, adobe persuasions, etc.
(4) Database software
It allows you to form and manage a database. A database could be a selection of data organized to permit access, retrieval, and use of that data. In the query is used to retrieve data per specified criteria, which are restrictions the information must meet. Example- Microsoft access, Corel paradox, Lotus approach, etc.
(5) Web browser software
To access the planet wide web to go looking documents, sounds, images, etc. (E. G-internet explorer, Netscape communicator, chrome).
(6) Geographic information system
It captures, stores, analyzes, manages, and presents data. Images and maps that are linked to different locations. (E. G-Arc GIS)
(7) CAD/CAM software
To help with architectural design. (E.g- Auto CAD, Auto desk)
Extra parts about computer software
It’s a program that the user is allowed to do freely, for a particular period of our time, as defined within the license. It’s downloadable from the internet. When the trial period ends, the software must be purchased and uninstalled.
It’s software that’s free for private use. It is downloadable from the web. The commercial use of this software may require a paid license. The author of the freeware software is that the owner of the software, though others may use it free the users abide by the license terms where the user cannot make Changes there to, or sell it to any other person.
(3) Public domain software
It’s free software. Unlike freeware, public domain software doesn’t have a copyright owner or license restrictions. The source code is publically available for anyone to use. Public domain software can be modified by the user.
(4) Open source software
It’s software during which the source code used to create the program is freely available for the general public view edit and redistribute.”Richard Stallmen is the father of open source”. Example-
Operating systems– Linux, Google Chrome, Android.
Programming language– Ruby, Perl, PHP, Python, Eclipse.
Application– VLC media player, Mozilla Firefox, Open office.
(5) Closed source system
In this system all systems are payable. An open-source system is better than a closed source system.
Features of the open-source system
(1) Does not depend on the vendor.
(2) Can choose additional support.
(3) Can fix bugs and adapt to change in requirements as well as technology.
(4) Quality and customizability in open source are better.
(5) Costs much less than proprietary counterparts.
(6) Source code to understand and learn from.
(7) Do not have to reinvent the wheel.
(8) Free as in Freedom.
So friends, here we have discussed in this topic definition of what is computer software and its types. We also have discussed categories, features and function etc. If you like it share with friends and family. If you need more information about it feel free to contact us.