What is the fiber optic cable?

Hello, friends on this part we are going to discuss what is the fiber optic cable and its types. In the last part we have discussed computer network topology. Now before we discuss what is the fiber optic cable  we have to learn about transmission mode of computer network, types and classes of transmission media. So that we can understand thoroughly about fiber optic cable.

Here are the main points we are discussing on this part-

Transmission is a process in which users can send data or information using network devices from sender to receiver is known as transmission mode. In simple language, we can say it is the process of sharing information devices.

Transmission mode types

(1) Simplex mode– It is one-way communication and this device can only send the data. Example- Keyboard, mouse, mic, etc.
(2)HALF Duplex mode– In this mode devices can send and receive the data. Half-duplex mode support one-way communication at a time. Users cannot send and receive data simultaneously.
(3) Full-Duplex mode– In this technology user/device can send and receive the data simultaneously.

Classes of Transmission media

(1) Guided(Wired) media(a) Twisted pair cable (b) Fibre optic cable (c) Coaxial cable, etc.

(2) Unguided(Wireless) media (a) Radiofrequency (b) Microwave (c) Infrared.

(1) Guided(Wired) Media

Twisted pair cable

It is a type of wiring in which two conductors of a single circuit are twisted together to improve electromagnetically compatibility.

Features of Twisted pair cable

(1) It is copper-based and with its plastic insulation, twisted together.
(2) One wire used to carry signals to the receiver.
(3) Second wire used as a ground reference.
(4) Very common medium.
(5) It can be used in the telephone network.
(6) Connection within the buildings. (LAN, PAN, CAN).
(7) For local area network(LAN)

Advantages It is cheap and easy to work.

Disadvantages– Low data rate and short-range.

Twisted pair cable types

(a) Shielded Twisted pair cable(STP) – It has a fine wire mesh surrounding the wires to protect the transmission. Metal braid or sheath foil that reduces interference. It is thick, heavy, and harder to handle. STP is used in IBM token ring networks. Higher transmission rates over longer distances. It is faster than UTP. But more expensive than UTP and high attenuation rate.

(b) Un-shielded Twisted pair cable(UTP) – This cable doesn’t shield and wound around each other. It is used in older telephone networks, as well as network and data communications to reduce outside interference. It is affordable, the Most compatible cabling, and a Major networking system. But It suffers from external
electromagnetic interference.

Difference between STP and UTP



(1) It is a twisted pair cable enclosed in foil or mesh shield.
(2) It is less susceptible to noise and crosstalk generation.
(3) Grounding cable is required.
(4) Difficult to install cables comparatively.
(5) It is very expensive
(6) Provides high data rates
(7) Less used

(1) It is a cable with wires that are twisted together.
(2) Comparatively high susceptibility to noise and crosstalk generation.
(3) Grounding cable not required.
(4) Easy to install as cables are smaller, lighter, and flexible.
(5) Less expensive and does not require much maintenance.
(6) Comparatively slow data rates.
(7) More used.
(8) DSL lines
(9) LAN- 10Mbps or 100Mbps

Co-Axial cable

Co-Axial cable carries the signal of high-frequency ranges than twisted pair cable. The inner conductor is a solid wire and the outer conductor serves as a shield against noise and a second conductor. Co-Axial cables are categorized by Radio Government(RG) ratings, RG is De Jure standards.

Categories of Coaxial cable

(a) RG-59 B/U- It uses in cable TV and its 75 oms resistance.
(B) RG-58 C/U- It uses thin Ethernet and its 50 oms resistance.
(c) RG-11/U- It uses thick Ethernet and its 50 oms resistance.

Connectors of CO-Axial cable

BNC connector – BNC stands for Bayonet Neil Concelman. It is series of connectors used for connecting thinner coaxial cabling to various networking components. BNC connectors used a
twist and lock mechanism that provides a secure connection between network cabling and components. these are basically used on 10base2 Ethernet networks.

BNC connector

(a) BNC cable connectors – It is used at the end of the cable to a device. Example- TV set connection

(b) BNC T connectors – It is used to Ethernet networks to branch out the connection to computers or other devices.

(c) BNC terminator – It is used at the end of the cable to prevent the reflection of the signal.

(d) BNC barrel connector

Features of Co-axial cable

(1) Most versatile medium.
(2) Television
(3) Long-distance telephone transmission
(4) Can carry 10,000 voice calls simultaneously.
(5) Short-distance computer systems links.
(6) Local area networks.

Advantages – It’s easy to wire, easy to expand.

Disadvantages– One cable disable can take down an entire network.

What is the fiber optic cable?

A fiber-optic cable also called an optical-fiber cable, it is an assembly exact to an electrical cable, but containing one or more optical fibers that are used to carry light. A fiber optic cable is a network cable that consists components of glass fibers inside an insulated casing. They are designed for long-distance, high performance data networking, and telecommunications. Compared to wired cables, fiber optic cables provide higher bandwidth and can transmit data over longer distances.

Nature of light– This type of cable light travels in a straight line. If the light goes from one substance to another then the ray of light changes direction and changes direction when goes from more dense to a less dense substance.

Fiber optic cable connectors – These types of connectors are recognized by the Electronic Industries Alliance/Telecommunications Industry Association (EIA/TIA) 568A. It has three types of connectores

(A) Subscriber channel connector(sc)– This connector is for structural cabling, it is used for high speed and for single-mode fiber cabling.

(B) Straight Tip connector(ST)– It is for structural cabling, it is for high speed, and for multi mode fiber cabling.

(C) Lucent connector(LC)– LC connectors are used for both single and multimode fiber cabling.

There are two types of Fiber Optic cable

(1) Single-mode fiber optic cableSingle-mode fiber optic cable has a small diametral core that allows only one mode of light to propagate. Because of this, the a number of light reflections created as the light pass through the core decreases, lowering attenuation and creating the ability for the signal to travel further. This application is typically used in long distances higher bandwidth runs by Telco, CATV companies, colleges, and Universities.

(2) Multi mode fiber optic cable – It has a large diametral core that allows multiple modes of light to propagate. Because of this, the number of light reflections created as the light passes through the core increases, creating the ability for more data to pass through at a given time. Because of the high dispersion and attenuation rate with this type of fiber, the quality of the signal is reduced over long distances. This application is typically used for a short distance, data and audio/video applications in LAN’s. Radio frequency broadband signals, such as what cable companies commonly use, cannot be transmitted over multi mode fiber.

Difference between single-mode and multimode



(1) Higher system cost
(2) Higher cost connectors
(3) Lower loss, higher bandwidth
(4) Lower fiber cost
(5) High-cost sources
(6) Higher installation cost
(7) Distance to 60 km +
(8) -1GB/s + Wf DWDM
(9) Maximum collecting attention.
(10) -1310+ NM lasers 1 and 10 GB/s
(11) Best for WAN, MAN, Access, Campus

(1) Lower system cost
(2) Low-cost connectors
(3) Higher loss, lower bandwidth
(4) Higher fiber cost
(5) Low-cost sources
(6) Lower installation cost
(7) +850 nm and 1310 nm LEDs
(8) +850 nm lasers at 1 and 10 GB/s.
(9) Minimum collecting attention
(10) Distance up to 2 km
(11) Best for LAN, SAN, Datacenter, co.

Advantages and disadvantages of fiber optic cable

Advantages of fiber optic cable

(1) Greater capacity example: Data rates at 100 Gbps
(2) Smaller size and lightweight
(3) Low attenuation

The disadvantage of fiber optic cable

(1) Installation and maintenance are expensive.
(2) Only unidirectional light propagation.

Cross Cable vs Straight cable

Cross cable – Cross cable used to connect a similar device.

Straight or patch cable – Patch cable is used to connect the dissimilar devices.

Standard cable types

There are two types of standard cable –  (1) 568 A  (2) 568 B

(1) TIA/EIA-568A and -568B are two standards for connecting category 3 and category 5 wire to connectors.
(2) Both are appropriate for high-speed data, though 568B is somewhat more common for installed wiring and 568A is more common in jumpers.
(3) There is no performance advantage another way.
(4) The only real difference between the two is the order in which the pairs are used (orange and green).


Pin 1– White /Green
Pin 2– Green/White(or just plain green)
Pin 3– White/orange
Pin 4– Blue/White(or just plain blue)
Pin 5– White/Blue
Pin 6– Orange/White(or just plain orange)
Pin 7-White/Brown
Pin 8– Brown/White(or just plain Brown)


PIN 1– White/Orange
Pin 2– Orange/White(or just plain orange)
Pin 3– White/green
Pin 4– Blue/White(or just plain Blue)
Pin 5– White/Blue
Pin 6- Green/WHITE(or just plain Green)
Pin 7– White/Brown
Pin 8– Brown/White(or just plain brown)

What is Ethernet Cable of computer networking?

It is known as RJ-45. It connects one end to a network switch, router, and other end Ethernet port on the computer.

Ethernet port

Ethernet port connects to a network and high-speed Internet and connects the network cable to a computer. It resides on an Ethernet card. Data travels at 10 Mb to 1000 Mb per second depending upon the network bandwidth.

What are RJ connectors?

RJ stands for Registered Jack. RJ connectors are a family of push and click connectors for twisted pair wiring in telephone and network wiring. RJ connectors are two  types- a jack(female) and a plug(male).

The most popular RJ connectors are –

RJ 11 connector – A 4-wire or  6-wire telephone-type connector.

RJ 45 connector – A 8-wire telephone-type connector.

RJ 48 connector – A 10-wire telephone-type connector TP.

The internet is a global wide area network that connects computer systems across the world.

So, friends in this part we have discussed what is transmission mode, classes of transmission media, what is the fiber optic cable. In the next part  part we will discuss what is an internet, wireless media, classes, milnet, arpanet, intranet, wireless/unguided media and its types, parts, differences, advantages and disadvantages, pinging, network threads, etc. If you like this topic please like, comment and share.

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